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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services


A rubric is an assessment tool that clearly indicates achievement criteria for different components of any type of work, including written, oral, and visual. It can be used for marking assignments, class participation, or overall grades. There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytical.

The first step of creating a rubric involves identifying the criteria or crucial elements required in the student’s work to demonstrate their learning. This should be drawn from the assignment outline or assignment requirements, which relates back to the learning outcomes. You must also decide how many levels of achievement you will include on the rubric and how they will relate to your grading scheme. For each criterion, describe what the performance at each achievement level looks like. Leave space for additional, tailored comments or overall impressions and a final grade. 

  • Develop a different rubric for each assignment. 
  • Be transparent. Give students a copy of the rubric when you assign the performance task and hand the rubric back with the assignment.
  • Leverage rubrics to manage your time. When you mark the assignment, circle or highlight the achieved level of performance for each criterion on the rubric.
  • Holistic rubrics

    Holistic rubrics group several different assessment criteria and classify them together under grade headings or achievement levels.



    Research report is well-written and meets all outlined criteria. The proposed research question is relevant and addresses a knowledge gap in the field. The thesis statement is clear and original. Research results are presented in a logical way and discussed in the report. Sentences are clear, without grammatical or mechanical errors. 


    Research report is well-written and meets most of the outlined criteria. It may have excellent clarity and relevance, but the presented information may not be as comprehensive as expected.  It may also show occasional problems in sentence structure or correctness. 


    Research report is acceptable, but not excellent. It meets at least two of the outlined criteria. It may show weaker quality of writing or may be well-written but not provide enough evidence to support the thesis statement. 


    Research report requires improvement but meets at least one of the outlined criteria. It may lack consistency, accuracy and relevance. It may not identify a knowledge gap in the field or provide a relevant hypothesis. 


    Research report is unsatisfactory and does not meet any of the outlined criteria. It presents numerous errors and ambiguities. The thesis statement and discussion are weak or not present. 

    Adapted from John Bean, Engaging Ideas, Exhibit 15.4: Holistic Scale for Grading Article Summaries (262)

  • Analytic rubrics

    Analytic rubrics separate different assessment criteria and address them comprehensively.

    Needs Improvement 


    Content is robust and highly relevant. Addresses a knowledge gap in the field. 

    Content is meaningful and relevant. Arguments mostly address a knowledge gap in the field. 

    Content is mostly relevant and somewhat meaningful. Knowledge gap is identified but not addressed.

    Content is not relevant. No knowledge gap is identified or addressed. 

    No meaningful content included. 

    Argument and Evidence

    Argument is clearly articulated with substantial evidence. 

    Argument is articulated with enough evidence.

    Argument is articulated with some evidence.

    Argument is unclear with little supporting evidence. 

    No clear argument or evidence presented.

    Flow and organization

    Content is presented in a logical and sequential manner. Includes a clear introduction and conclusion.

    Content is presented coherently with sufficient transitions throughout the report.

    Content is mostly presented logically but some arguments are not integrated well. Transitions are not used throughout the report.

    Content lacks logical organization and flow. Introduction and/or conclusion is present and somewhat relevant. 

    Content lacks logical organization and flow. No clear introduction or conclusion.

    Style and format

    Meets all formatting guidelines. All margins, spacing and indentations are correct. Report is within the page limit. 

    Meets most formatting guidelines. All margins, spacing and indentations are correct. Report is not within the page limit. 

    Meets some formatting guidelines. Some margins, spacing and indentations are incorrect. Report is not within the page limit. 

    Meets some formatting guidelines but shows significant errors with margins, spacing and indentation. Report is not within the page limit. 

    Formatting guidelines were not met. All margins, spacing and indentations are incorrect. Report is not within the page limit. 

    Spelling and grammar

    No spelling and/or grammar errors

    Few spelling and/or grammar errors

    Some spelling and/or grammar errors 

    Many spelling and/or grammar errors

    Spelling and grammar errors impact legibility


Sections of this page were adapted from Rubrics: Useful Assessment Tools. (2020, May 13). Centre for Teaching Excellence.