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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Backward Design


Backward design involves planning with the end in mind as a starting point. Understanding by Design (UbD) is a specific framework developed by Wiggins and McTighe that includes three steps: 1) identify learning outcomes, 2) develop aligned assessments, and 3) develop a learning plan. A backwards design process can be used for course-level planning or units. 


  • Identify Learning Outcomes
    What are the learning outcomes for the course or unit? What should learners know (content knowledge), do (apply), and be (value) by the end? Some courses have predefined learning outcomes aligned with program requirements. Beyond these, what knowledge, skills, and experiences will learners develop in the time frame?
  • Determine Evidence

    Once you’ve identified the outcomes for your course or unit, how will you know if the learners have achieved these goals?  Wiggins and McTighe (2016) propose a “continuum of assessment methods” which includes informal and formal assessments such as informal checks for understanding, observations, quizzes and tests, as well as performance tasks and projects.  

  • Develop a Learning Plan

    Once you’ve established learning outcomes and the evidence needed to assess if learners have achieved the goals, you now need to develop a learning plan. A learning plan can be organized in a course map which includes the topics, sequence of lessons, teaching strategies, and resources/materials. 


 backward design process


Design Tools (outlines and templates) - by McTighe & Associates Consulting


Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). What is backward design? In Understanding by Design. Retrieved from